Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities (ADAAG)
Assembly Area. A room or space accommodating a group of individuals for
recreational, political, social, civic, or amusement purposes, or the
consumption of food and drink.
4.1.3. Accessible Buildings:
New Construction. Accessible buildings and facilities shall meet the
following minimum requirements [...]
(19)* Assembly areas
(b) This paragraph applies to assembly areas where audible communications
are integral to the use of the space (e.g., concert and lecture halls,
playhouses and movie theaters, meetings rooms, etc.). Such assembly areas,
if (1) they accommodate at least 50 persons, or if they have
audio-amplification systems, and (2) they have fixed seating, shall have a
permanently installed assistive listening system complying with 4.33.
For other assembly areas, a permanently installed assistive listening
system, or an adequate number of electrical outlets or other supplementary
wiring necessary to support a portable assistive listening system shall be
provided. The minimum number of receivers to be provided shall be equal to
4 percent of the total number of seats, but in no case less than two.
Signage complying with applicable provisions of 4.30 shall be installed to
notify patrons of the availability of a listening system.
4.30.7* Symbols of Accessibility.
(4) Assistive Listening Systems.
In assembly areas where permanently installed assistive listening systems
are required by 4.1.3(19)(b), the availability of such systems shall be
identified with signage that includes the international symbol of access
for hearing loss (see Figure 1).
Figure 1: International Symbol of Access for Hearing Loss
4.33 Assembly Areas
4.33.6* Placement of Listening Systems.
If the listening system provided serves individual fixed seats, then such
seats shall be located within a 50 ft (15 m) viewing distance of the stage
or playing area and shall have a complete view of the stage or playing
4.33.7* Types of Listening Systems.
Assistive listening systems (ALS) are intended to augment standard public
address and audio systems by providing signals which can be received
directly by persons with special receivers or their own hearing aids and
which eliminate or filter background noise. The type of assistive
listening system appropriate for a particular application depends on the
characteristics of the setting, the nature of the program, and the
intended audience. Magnetic induction loops, infra-red and radio frequency
systems are types of listening systems which are appropriate for various
Figure 2: An Induction Loop (IL) System
Figure 3: An FM System
Figure 4: An Infrared (IR) System
DOJ Title II rule
DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE
28 CFR PART 35
Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in State and Local
Subpart A -- General
Auxiliary aids and services includes—
(1) Qualified interpreters, notetakers, transcription services, written
materials, telephone handset amplifiers, assistive listening devices,
assistive listening systems, telephones compatible with hearing aids,
closed caption decoders, open and closed captioning, telecommunications
devices for deaf persons (TDD’s), videotext displays, or other effective
methods of making aurally delivered materials available to individuals
with hearing impairments.
Subpart E – Communications
(a) A public entity shall take appropriate steps to ensure that
communications with applicants, participants, and members of the public
with disabilities are as effective as communications with others.
(b)(1) A public entity shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids and
services where necessary to afford an individual with a disability an
equal opportunity to participate in, and enjoy the benefits, of a service,
program, or activity conducted by a public entity.
(2) In determining what type of auxiliary aids and service is necessary, a
public entity shall give primary consideration to the requests of the
individual with disabilities.
AND TITLE III:
PART 36 NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC
ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES
36.303 Auxiliary aids and services.
(a)General. A public accommodation shall take those steps that may be
necessary to ensure that no individual with a disability is excluded,
denied services, segregated or otherwise treated differently than other
individuals because of the absence of auxiliary aids and services, unless
the public accommodations can demonstrate taking those steps would
fundamentally alter the nature of the goods, services, facilities,
privileges, advantages or accommodations being offered or would result in
an undue burden, i.e., significant difficulty or expense.
(b) Examples. The term “auxiliary aids and services” includes – (1)
Qualified interpreters, notetakers, computer-aided transcription services,
written materials, telephone handset amplifiers, assistive listening
devices, assistive listening systems, telephones compatible with hearing
aids, closed caption decoders, open and closed captioning,
telecommunications devices for deaf persons (TDD’s), videotext displays,
or other effective methods of making aurally delivered materials available
to individuals with hearing impairments;
(c) Effective communication. A public accommodation shall furnish
appropriate auxiliary aids and services where necessary to ensure
effective communication with individuals with disabilities.
This technical assistance
is intended solely as informal guidance; it is not a determination of the
legal rights or responsibilities of entities subject to the ADA.
landmark Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), enacted on July 26, 1990,
provides comprehensive civil rights protections to individuals with
disabilities in the areas of employment (title I), State and local
government services (title II), public accommodations and commercial
facilities (title III), and telecommunications (title IV). Both the
Department of Justice and the Department of Transportation, in adopting
standards for new construction and alterations of places of public
accommodation and commercial facilities covered by title III and public
transportation facilities covered by title II of the ADA, have issued
implementing rules that incorporate the Americans with Disabilities Act
Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG), developed by the Access Board.
U N I T E D S T A T E S A C C E S S B O A R D
A FEDERAL AGENCY COMMITTED TO ACCESSIBLE DESIGN
ASSISTIVE LISTENING SYSTEMS
BULLETIN 9C: FOR PROVIDERS
What are assistive listening systems (ALSs)?
listening systems (ALSs) are devices designed to help people with hearing
loss improve their auditory access in difficult and large-area listening
situations. Typically, these devices are used in such venues as movie
houses, theaters, auditoriums, convention centers, and stadiums, where
they are piggybacked on a public address system. They may also be used in
smaller listening locations like courtrooms, museums, classrooms, and
though a public address (PA) system is in use, sound signals have to
travel from the loudspeaker(s) to the listener’s seating position.
Depending upon the particular site, this distance may be anywhere from a
few feet to well over a hundred feet. Whenever sound signals travel
acoustically, they lose volume over distance and are subject to distortion
and masking from background noise and reverberation.
sound signals delivered by the ALS do not travel through acoustical space
before arriving at listeners’ ears. Thus, they are not weakened by
distance or degraded by noise and reverberation during the transmission
process. Instead, signals are transmitted via electromagnetic, radio, or
light waves to specialized receivers used by listeners. An ALS eliminates
the last acoustical leg of the signal transmission path, providing
listeners with hearing impairments with a parallel transmission path that
short-cuts the usual delivery process.
is important to note that ALSs are not intended as substitutes for hearing
aids but as supplements to hearing aids. ALS can also be used to improve
functional hearing abilities for people who don’t use hearing aids.
Assembly facility operators may need to provide more than one type of
device in order to serve all audiences.
How do ALS function for people with hearing loss?
comprehension are not the same. One of the most frequent complaints voiced
by people with hearing impairments is that they hear someone talking
without understanding what is being said. Even in what appear to be
adequate listening conditions, people with hearing loss may struggle to
understand. In rooms with excessive noise and reverberation,
comprehension can become impossible. While hearing aids can restore some
of the reduced loudness caused by a hearing loss, they cannot separate the
primary signa – the desired sound – from the undesired background noise.
In fact, they amplify both. Thus, hearing aids cannot improve the
speech-to-noise ratio (S/N), which is the intensity level of the speech
signal relative to background noise. People who have hearing loss need
high S/N ratios to comprehend sound signals.
work to overcome the deleterious effect of the intervening acoustical
conditions by bypassing them. They deliver the desired sound signal
directly to the listener’s ear, which increases the speech-to-noise
ratio. This permits people with hearing loss to function to the limits of
their residual hearing capacities.
do more than improve basic speech perception capabilities in large-area
listening situations. Often people with hearing impairments are able, by
expending a great deal of energy and effort, to understand speech signals
in such places. They can get the message, but they have to focus so
intently on receiving the spoken message that they have difficulty
attending to what is being said. Unlike people with normal hearing, they
may not be able to relax and enjoy an entertainment experience or focus
effectively for long periods of time in an education setting. The use of
ALSs can minimize this listening fatigue.
Are ALSs required in assembly facilities?
with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) requires that buildings and facilities
be accessible to and usable by people with disabilities. This includes
communications access for people with hearing loss.
ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG), adopted as the ADA standards for
accessible design by the Department of Justice (DOJ) in 1991, require that
certain newly constructed and altered assembly facilities be designed and
constructed to include assistive listening systems (see the sidebar for
ADAAG scoping and technical provisions). In addition, DOJ regulations
implementing title II (covering the public sector) and title III (covering
the private sector) of the ADA include requirements for effective
communication with people with disabilities that may require the
installation of fixed or portable ALSs in existing assembly facilities
ADA does not cover private clubs and entities that are operated and
controlled by religious organizations. However, many houses of worship
make ALSs available to their congregants, not as a matter of law but as a
service to their people, and club facilities used by other organizations
must support ALSs required for meetings and performances.
Consumers who use assistive listening devices report dissatisfaction with
the quality of many systems provided in assembly areas. Device use rates
and patterns may have been artificially depressed due to the lack of
effectiveness and/or compatibility of many systems now installed.
Demographics suggest that use of ALSs will increase as our population
ages. It is likely also that current technologies will advance as new
requirements are implemented.
What types of systems are currently available?
three basic types of large area assistive listening systems:
Induction Loop (Figure 2)
In the first
type, the induction loop (IL) system, a loop of wire encircles the
listening area (or is embedded in a mat or placed under a rug). This loop
of wire is connected to the amplifier output of a public address (PA)
system instead of, or in addition to, the usual loudspeaker. The IL system
produces an electromagnetic field around the wire. These electromagnetic
signals are accessed by listeners with hearing impairments through
telephone coils found in many hearing aids (about 30% of hearing aids
include “T” coils). While these “T” coils were originally included in
hearing aids to improve telephone communication, they will respond to any
electromagnetic field. When the electromagnetic field emanating from the
wire loop intersects these coils, it induces an alternating electrical
current in the coil. This electrical current is then processed by the
hearing aid in the same way that it processes acoustical (sound) signals
reaching its microphone. The major advantage of IL systems is that
listeners whose hearing aids include “T” coils always have an ALS receiver
with them. All they have to do to get tuned in is switch their hearing
aids to the telecoil (“T”) position when entering a looped area.
Facilities with IL systems must provide separate telecoil receivers for
people who do not use hearing aids. These receivers come in various shapes
and sizes, but all contain a wire coil to detect the electromagnetic field
and an amplifier to increase the signal level.
Problems reported with IL systems include spill-over of the magnetic field
into adjacent areas (both horizontally and vertically); susceptibility to
stray electromagnetic fields; variations in the electromagnetic field
within the loop; and issues related to the quality and physical
orientation of the telecoils. With a proper installation and appropriate
hearing aids, all of these problems can be eliminated or minimized for
FM (Figure 3)
type is the FM system. An FM assistive listening system is simply a
variation on the commercial FM radio. The signals are broadcast by FM
transmitters and picked up by listeners using an FM receiver tuned to the
transmitting frequency. These receivers must be made available by the
facilities that use FM ALSs. The FCC has reserved two non-commercial bands
for auditory assistance devices. The lower band is a non-exclusive band,
which means that interference from other users in the same frequencies may
occur (such as from emergency vehicles of various kinds). The effective
range of the lower FM band is a radius of about 300 to 500 feet; that of
the upper band approximately twice that.
There are several potential problems with FM systems. The first is that
privacy is not possible. The FM signals do not stay contained within the
four walls of an enclosure. If privacy is a consideration, then an FM
system is not appropriate for that facility. The second potential problem
is the obverse of the first: radio signals originating outside of the
facility can enter the facility and interfere with reception. One cannot
prevent occasional interference, as when an emergency vehicle in the area
transmits on the same frequency used in the venue. However, persistent
interference can usually be overcome by selecting alternate frequencies
within the permitted bands. On the up-side, it is relatively easy with an
FM system to ensure adequate signal strength at all seat locations, even
in the largest venues.
Infrared (Figure 4)
The third type
of ALS is the Infrared (IR) light system. In an IR system, audio signals
from any source are conveyed to listeners via infrared light waves (using
light emitting diodes) invisible to the human eye. The light waves are
picked up by a photo detector diode contained within an optical bubble on
the IR receiver. The receiver extracts the audio information from the IR
signal and delivers an amplified version to the ears of a listener.
Ordinarily, strict line-of-sight is necessary between an IR emitter and
the transparent lens on the receiver, but this can be modified in rooms
with light-colored surfaces (the IR waves are reflected off them) or by
adding additional emitters. Since IR systems are light waves, they exhibit
the advantages and disadvantages of light waves. The IR signals will be
contained within a room, thus ensuring privacy, and adjacent rooms in a
facility can use IR systems without fear of inter-room interference. They
are also not as subject to radio or electromagnetic interference as are FM
systems. However, outdoor use is problematic because of the effect of
sunlight (which contains a great deal of infrared energy) and it is more
difficult to cover the largest venues with IR systems.
IR systems require a radio-frequency (RF) sub-carrier as an intervening
step between the audio and the light waves. Compatibility between venues
has always been a major advantage of IR systems, although electromagnetic
interference produced by the newer, more energy efficient, fluorescent
lights has led some facilities to change frequencies. This will not be a
problem for consumers as long as the facility provides them with
compatible IR receivers. Commercial IR receivers haven’t yet been
manufactured to detect all the possible sub-carrier frequencies.
How do I know which type is appropriate for my facility?
particularly larger ones, are well-advised to consult with a professional
sound contractor, preferably one with experience in installing ALSs,
before purchasing any system. An experienced installer will lead you
through the steps that are necessary to ensure that both you and your
patrons will be happy with the results. Below are just some of the
considerations that you and the installer will jointly consider:
privacy a major consideration? Is it necessary that the events taking
place within a facility be inaccessible to people outside the enclosure?
If so, then an IR system must be employed.
large number of simultaneous events going to be taking place in
adjoining facilities? While there are a sufficient number of potential
FM carrier frequencies available to ensure non-interference between
rooms, and thus an FM system is a possibility, it will then be necessary
to provide FM receivers that can be tuned to all the possible
frequencies. How will your audience respond to the necessity to change
frequencies? Do you care if someone in one room can tune in to events in
a different room? If these possibilities can cause problems, then an IR
system will be best.
going to be necessary to use the system alternately in a number of
different rooms (such as in a community center, from one activity room
to another)? Ordinarily, FM system are somewhat more flexible and can be
used both indoors and out (as in a tour group). However, some IR systems
are also relatively easy to deploy, and portable units will work well in
the smaller activity rooms, though they will not operate as effectively
facility very large? Is it a massive auditorium with balconies,
overhangs, and other nooks and crannies? While a skilled person can
install an IR system in such locations, it is easier to ensure an
appropriate signal at all seat locations with an FM system. Is much of
the action going to take place outdoors (as at a race track)? In this
case too, your best bet would be an FM system.
facility being bombarded by stray FM transmissions? Your installer will
use a frequency scanner to determine the possibility of interference. If
the interference is likely to persist, then an IR system would be the
facilities where a large percentage of users are likely to have “T”
coils in their hearing aids, IL systems are probably the simplest system
to manage, since the IL receiver is simply the telecoil in the person’s
own hearing aid. However, an IL system must also make specialized IL
receivers available to others, including hearing aid users whose devices
don’t include telecoils and to listeners who don’t use hearing aids at
What types of receivers and coupling arrangements are available?
induce the greatest variability in system effectiveness for listeners and
offer the greatest opportunity for gain. Interference is a major concern,
but coupling arrangements are also a concern. Because ALS users may be
listening with or without aids, a variety of connections must be
provided. Standardized connectors are needed to serve listeners with
in-the-ear, behind-the-ear, and other hearing aids; people who have
cochlear implants; and users whose hearing is not aided. ALSs can also be
used to provide audible description.
receivers should be binaural/stereo. Neckloops and silhouettes are the
recommended connection between receiver and ear (aided or unaided).
Neckloops are compatible with telecoil-equipped hearing aids and can also
provide for direct input (DAI). They are easy to use, comfortable to wear,
hygienic, and allow binaural hearing use. They can be turned off for
conversation. With the addition of a standard 1/8-inch jack at the
receiver, direct coupling to a personal aid or cochlear implant is
possible. Silhouette (transducer) couplings are also compatible with
telecoil-equipped hearing aids, but may not be as comfortable to wear.
buds are useful only to those with normal hearing or mild hearing loss.
They are not binaural, and are a better vehicle for audio description than
for assisted listening.
Overall ALS sound quality is a function of multiple factors, including:
microphone quality, placement, and use in a public address system;
quality and maintenance;
proportion, surface, and use
location and orientation with respect to transmitting devices;
aid type and condition; and
compatibility between coupling devices and aids (if any).
receivers are about the size of a pack of cigarettes and include on/off
switches and volume controls. The receivers may be worn hung around the
neck, clipped to a belt or placed in a pocket. They connect to headsets,
earbuds, or neckloops. People who use hearing aids may prefer to use a
neckloop that does not require a fitting over the ear. It is plugged into
the receiver earphone jack and transmits an electromagnetic field to a
hearing aid telecoil. This inductive coupling is a convenient way to use
an ALS receiver, since it enables people to continue to use their personal
hearing aids. However, only about 30% of modern hearing aids include
telecoils (mainly because of size restrictions – they won’t fit into the
smallest hearing aids). Other hearing aid (behind-the-ear type) or
cochlear implant users may prefer to directly connect their aid to the
earphone jack on the receiver using a patch cord of their own.
Infrared (IR) body pack receivers are similar to FM receivers and employ
the same coupling arrangements (headphones, earbuds, neckloops, patchcords).
The major difference is that every IR receiver has an optical bubble which
collects the IR light wave for processing by a photo-optical circuit. IR
receivers are also available in forms not available with FM receivers,
such as under-the-chin stethoscope units and self-contained headphones.
Stethoscope units place the electronics, volume control and optical bubble
in a single unit that dangles from a user’s ears. Some of these units also
include an output jack for insertion of a neckloop.
Where inductive loop (IL) systems are installed, listeners who have
telecoil-equipped heaing aids need only turn on the switch to activate the
ALS. It will be necessary to provide specialized receivers that contain a
telecoil to deliver the sound through a hearing aid or by means of a
headset or earbud.
How many receivers should I make available?
The number of
receivers should be equal to at least four percent of the total number of
seats available, with a minimum of two in any facility with fixed seating
of 50 or more.
What kinds of signs and public notification of ALS’s should I provide?
required by the
ADA, it is advisable for venues to note the availability
of ALSs in all of their media publicity (including printed ads, TV and
radio announcements, recorded telephone messages). People who require an
ALS should know that one is available – and what type it is – before they
make plans to attend an event.
is required by the
ADA is visible signage at the facility that notes the
availability of an ALS and information on where receivers can be checked
out. These signs should be placed at several prominent locations within
the facility, certainly including one at or near the box office.
Who has the responsibility for managing the receivers?
that provides an ALS should designate someone to be responsible for
checking the receivers in and out and for ensuring that they are working
correctly. This is not a responsibility that venues should treat lightly.
Neither the ticket seller at the box office or the clerk at the
refreshment stand will be able to manage distribution, trouble-shooting,
and collection of ALS receivers in large venues. Patrons should not have
to search the facility for someone to return the receiver to at the close
of the program to redeem their driver’s license (or other ID). A fixed
location is best, staffed by a trained employee assigned this
staff member should understand the basic principles of the ALS and the
operation of the receivers and coupling devices and be able to show
patrons how to turn the system on and off. Technical assistance should be
available during a performance for malfunctioning devices.
What are the probable expenses in purchasing and maintaining an ALS?
For a movie
theater, small auditorium, or large meeting room or lecture hall, the
purchase of a wide-area FM transmitter will cost between $600 and $1200
and will include three or four receivers with the package. Additional
single channel receivers will run about $100 each, while multi-channel
receivers are more expensive. If rechargeable batteries are to be used
(ordinarily recommended), then it is necessary to add the cost of a pocket
recharger/storage case. A sixteen-pocket recharger costs about $500.
Infrared systems tend to be a bit more expensive, ranging between $800 and
$2500 for a similar venue, depending upon the number of emitters required
to cover the seating area. Infrared receivers also tend to be just a bit
more expensive than FM receivers and installation expenses are somewhat
higher for an IR than an FM system. Considering the usual expenses in
operating any kind of assembly facility, however, the cost of any type of
ALS is a relatively small item.
Maintenance costs should also be minimal. Depending upon how often the
system is used, rechargeable batteries in the receiver should last well
over a year. The disposable tips on earbuds should be changed after each
use, but this costs only pennies. Periodically, a receiver will have to be
replaced. This does not happen too often. Rather than have some irate
customer call your attention to a malfunctioning receiver, it is best that
problems be detected before receivers are handed out to patrons. Using a
staff member as the ALS receiver “caretaker” is probably the greatest
ongoing expense associated with ALS’s. It may take an hour or so to check
the receivers in and out, which includes troubleshooting the receivers to
ensure their proper operation.
What is involved in installing an ALS?
consider the goal, which is to ensure both an adequate and high-quality
signal (electromagnetic, radio, or light wave) at all seat locations
within a facility. By an adequate signal, we mean one that is strong
enough to be properly processed by the correct receiver (FM, IR, or “T”
coil). By high quality, we mean a signal that meets defined
electroacoustic standards. Given these goals, then the most significant
decision a provider can make is to select a knowledgeable and experienced
sound contractor. Many venues also have in-house personnel with basic
expertise in amplification technologies. Staff should consult with
manufacturers in determining what type of ALS should be selected and how
it should be installed.
smaller venues, such as community and senior centers and houses of
worship, it is not likely that an in-house expert will be available. More
likely than not, the maintenance person, the site’s administrator, or a
computer or communications “techie” will be the one on whom the
installation responsibility will fall. Even here, however, it is desirable
to seek expert advice. This can be obtained from local audiologists and
from the representatives of the various companies that manufacturer ALSs.
These “reps” are a particularly good source of information; while not
professional installers, they are usually able to offer good advice and
information. In any facility where there is an existing sound system, the
most economical and efficient way to proceed is to piggy-back the ALS on
What kinds of problems may occur after an ALS has been installed?
Some of the
more common problems are enumerated below, along with solutions:
or no sound coming from FM or IR receivers: Solutions: (1) Check all
batteries (rechargeable and disposable) before using. (2) Check that VU
indicator on transmitter shows correct reading.
coming from the loudspeakers, but not the ALS. Solutions: (1) Check to
see that the system is turned on (piggybacking the ALS to the PA system
would preclude this problem). (2) Check receiver batteries.
signals are weak or distorted. Solutions: (1) Check that IR emitters
have not been moved or covered with some object. (2) Check that the
optical bubble on the personal receiver is not being covered. (3) Check
batteries. (4) Check VU reading on transmitter.
radio signals being detected by FM receiver. Solutions: (1) Change
transmitting frequency (remember to vary receiver frequency as well).
(2) Use frequency scanner to determine a “clean” channel.
systems picking up signals from adjoining locations. Solution: Check
that FM receiver is tuned to the correct channel.
systems, dead spots in the listening area. Solution: Check with the
manufacturer/installer. It is possible that the emitters will have to be
re-oriented or additional ones installed.
okay, but patron is using a hearing aid that doesn’t pick up signal.
Solutions: (1) When receiver is coupled to a neckloop, check that
hearing aid is in the “T” position. (2) Problem may reflect an
inoperable hearing aid; check that patron can hear with hearing aid when
not using the ALS.
How many people in our society can benefit from an ALS?
regarding the number of people with hearing loss in our society vary
depending upon the source and the criteria used to define hearing loss.
Most sources give this number as between 24 and 28 million people, or
about 10 percent of the population. Hearing-impairment increases with age.
It is estimated that about 50% of persons over the age of 65 have some
degree of hearing impairment. Additionally, the incidence of
noise-induced hearing loss has increased over the last two decades. Due
to increased longevity and the aging of our population, the total number
and proportion of people with hearing loss is likely to increase
substantially in the future. Most of these people will enjoy greater
perception with less listening effort when using an ALS in assembly areas
where audible communication is integral to the use of the space. People
receiving direct assistance from an ALS are not the only ones involved.
People do not usually attend events by themselves. If one considers those
family members who would be accompanying the person with a hearing loss,
then it is apparent that the total number of people who would be
potentially impacted by the availability of an ALS is even greater than 28
people with hearing impairments have stopped attending all kinds of public
events because they can’t hear what’s going on or they have to work too
hard to comprehend the proceedings. By improving auditory access,
facility operators can encourage increased attendance.
Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Hearing Enhancement, website
has a great deal of useful information on assistive listening systems.
Other resources include the technical assistance center at Gallaudet
and the Access Board,
The Access Board also
provides a toll-free technical assistance number at (800) 872-2253 (voice)
or (800) 993-2822 (TTY).
N I T E D S T A T E S A C C E S S B O A R D
1331 F Street, N.W. Suite 1000 Washington, DC 20004-1111
800 872-2253 (v)
800 993-2822 (TTY)
fax: 202 272-0081